Hansen's Northwest Native Plant Database


Northwest Native Lilies

Kingdom Plantae Plants
Subkingdom Tracheobionta Vascular plants
Superdivision Spermatophyta Seed plants
Division Magnoliophyta Flowering plants
Class Liliopsida Monocotyledons
Subclass Liliidae
Order Liliales
Family Liliaceae Lily family
Genus Lilium L. lily

 

Species of this genus native to the Pacific Northwest: Washington, Oregon, California and some Canadian Provinces

Fritillaria camschatcensis (L.) Ker Gawl. Kamchatka Fritillary
Fritillaria pudica (Pursh) Spreng. Yellow Fritillary
Lilium bolanderi S. Watson Bolander's Lily
Lilium columbianum Leichtlin Columbia Lily
Lilium kelloggii Purdy Kellogg's Lily
Lilium occidentale Purdy Western Lily
Lilium pardalinum Kellogg ssp. pardalinum Leopard Lily
Lilium pardalinum Kellogg ssp. vollmeri (Eastw.) M.W. Skinner Vollmer's Lily
Lilium pardalinum Kellogg ssp. wigginsii (Beane & Vollmer) M.W. Skinner Wiggins' Lily
Lilium parryi Lemon Lily
Lilium parvum Kellogg Sierra tiger Lily
Lilium washingtonianum Kellogg Washington Lily
Lilium washingtonianum Kellogg ssp. purpurascens (Stearn) M.W. Skinner Cascade Lily

Photo credit: Ron Moodycliffe

General Information For This Genus

Click on links at bottom of this page for photos and details of each plant.

Descriptions:

Lilium is a genus of herbaceous flowering plants growing from bulbs, all with large, prominent flowers. They comprise a genus of about 110 species in the lily family Liliaceae. Most species are native to the temperate northern hemisphere, though their range extends into the northern subtropics.

Lilies form an important group of flowering garden plants and are important in culture and literature in much of the world. A few species are sometimes grown or harvested for the edible bulbs.

The species in genus Lilium are true lilies. Many other plants have "lily" in their common names, some of which are quite unrelated to true lilies.

Reproductive Parts of a Lily Flower

1. Stigma: the receptive tip of a carpel, or several fused carpels, in the female parts of a flower. The pollen is received here and it germinates. The pollen is captured from the air, from visiting insects or other animals, or in rare cases from surrounding water. Stigmas can be long and slender, globe shaped or feathery.

2. Style: an elongated part of a carpel, or group of fused carpels, between the ovary and the stigma.

3. Stamen: the pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower.

4. Filament: the stalk of a stamen.

5. Tepal: perianth segment, either sepal or petal

Photo credit: J.J. Harrison

Cases of mistaken identity: northwest native perennials incorrectly called lilies

Bear Grass (Xerophyllum tenax)

Cat's Ear, Short Stemmed Mariposa Lily (Calochortus uniflorus)

Chocolate Lily (Fritillaria affinis)

Corn Lily (Veratrum viride)

Fawn Lily (Erythronium oreganum)

Field Cluster Lily (Dichelostemma congestum)

Fool's Onion (Triteleia hyacinthina)

Glacier Lily (Erythronium grandiflorum var. grandiflorum)

Harvest Lily (Dichelostemma congestum)

Hooker's Onion, Taper Tip Onion (Allium acuminatum)

Hyacinth Brodiaea (Triteleia hyacinthina)

Indian Hyacinth (Camassia quamash)

Mosquito Bill (Dodecatheon hendersonii)

Nodding Onion (Allium cernuum)

Pink Fawn Lily (Erythronium revolutum)

 

Veratrum viride

(Corn Lily)

Photo credit: S. B. Johnny

Species Information For This Genus

Click on links below for photos and details of each plant.

Fritillaria camaschatcensis (Kamchatka Fritillary, Kamchatka Lily, Black Lily, Rice Lily, Northern Rice-Root, Indian Rice, Wild Rice, Skunk Lily, Dirty Diaper, Outhouse Lily, Chocolate Lily)

A perennial that herb lives in a bulbuous cluster of several larger scales much like garlic but with many small bulblets around them reminiscent of rice grains. Flowering from May to July, there may be 1 to 8 dark brown/purple to greenish brown flowers at the top of the stems, often with yellowish streaks or spots and bear a very nasty scent.

Photo credit: Transactions of the Linnean Society of London, Volume 10 - tab 11-renewed

 

Fritillaria pudica (Yellow Bells)

This is a short version of the beloved Fritillaria topping out at only 6 tall in most situations. The flowers are deep yellow with a tinge of brown around the base.

Photo credit:The Garden xiii

 

Lilium bolanderi (Bolander's Lily)

This northwest native lily, commonly called Bolander's Lily, is perfect for the wildlife garden. Allen's and Rufous Hummingbirds are strongly attracted to the beautiful red trumpet shaped flowers which come on a bit earlier than most other bulbous lilies native to the Pacific northwest.

Lilium columbianum (Tiger Lily)

This beautiful perennial native lily grows from 2-4 tall. From the whorls of 6-9 lime green leaves, stretch the flowering stalks. Each stalk is laden with clusters of 2, bell-like, orange flowers with red spots. They hang pendant, the petals curling backwards to the stem.

Photo credit: Mary  Vaux Walcott from Smithsonian American Art Museum

 

Lilium kelloggii Purdy (Kellogg's Lily)

 

Lilium kelloggii, commonly called Kellogg's Lily, is a beautiful summer bloomer. Native to the Klamath Mountains of southern Oregon and northern California where it finds hospitable areas in the forest, even as an under story among the Coast Redwoods (Sequoia sempervirens).

Photo credit: John Loganecker

 

Lilium occidentale (Western Lily)

 

This species is now considered rare. Lilium occidentale, commonly called Western Lily, is native to southern Oregon and northern California where it has been documented in just 28 locations (down from historic locations of 58), every one within six miles of the coast. Found in coastal prairie habitats, swamps, stagnant bogs, on bluffs or sandy cliffs and in seaside spruce forested areas.

Photo credit: Henry John Elwes

 

Lilium pardalinum ssp. pardalinum (Leopard Lily)

 

A beautiful lily with early summer flowers of red and orange, spotted with purple. Leopard lily forms clumps and can reach 6. Often as many as ten pendant flowers grace each stem.

 

Lilium pardalinum ssp. vollmeri (Vollmer's Lily)

Lilium pardalinum Kellogg ssp. vollmeri (Eastw.) M.W. Skinner (Vollmer's lily) differs from the subspecies pardalinum in that it is taller, branches less often and less regularly. This lily does not form large colonies. The leaves are not as regularly occurring along the stems as ssp. pardalinum. Elsewise the two are very similar.

Photo credit: Mrs. W.D. Bransford

 

Lilium pardalinum ssp. wigginsii (Wiggins' Lily)

True to Lilium pardalinum heritage, this subspecies grows usually between 30 to 48 inches tall, from single to several stems with nodding bell-shaped flowers numbering between 2 and 35 per plant. Leaves on large plants are in 3 or 4 whorls along the stem and are from 2 to 5 inches long. In smaller plants the leaves are scattered. The yellow-orange or orange flowers are uniformly colored and have magenta to brown spots. The pollen is pale yellow to pale orange.

Photo credit: Native Orchids

 

 

 

Lilium parryi (Lemon Lily)

Do not confuse Lemon Lily with the daylily that shares the same common name but is not a true lily. The yellow trumpet shaped flowers have vivid brown anthers and often have maroon speckles inside. The tall flower stems can reach up to 6 feet tall and will produce several flowers per stem.

Lilium parvum (Sierra Tiger Lily, Ditch Lily)

Sierra Tiger Lily or Alpine Lily is native to the Sierra Nevada region of California, east into Nevada and on occasion a bit north into Oregon. Preferring forest regions, mountainous and in lower elevations of willow thickets, streams, wet meadows particularly where streams flow through conifers.

Lilium washingtonianum (Washington Lily, Cascade Lily, Mount Hood Lily)

This is a tall lily reaching 3-6 tall. The stalks are covered with fragrant trumpet shaped flowers that are white with dark purple speckles. The flowers will change from white to a purple pink color with age.

 

Lilium washingtonianum ssp. purpurascens (Washington Lily, Cascade Lily, Mount Hood Lily)

This subspecies is distinguished from subspecies washingtonianum by more compact bulbs with longer scales.

Photo credit: Henry John Elwes

 

Contact:  star@chillirose.com ~ Copyright 2012 Wallace W. Hansen ~ All rights reserved